SOBANUKIRWA IBIKORWA BY'AGAHATO(AKAZI,SHIKU,UBURETWA,…) MU GIHE CY'UBUKOLONI BW'ABABILIGI (1916-1962).

Ibikorwa byagahato byatewe n'impamvu y'ingenzi ikurikira.

 Abakoloni bari bagamije mbere ya byose inyungu zabo zo kuvoma ibintu binyuranye bakoresheje Abanyarwanda. Bamwe bakagomba kubafasha mu butegetsi, bakageza ku baturage amabwiriza y'Abazungu kandi bakareba niba yubahirizwa. Abatabikoze bagahanwa; ndetse n'abatware habagaho ubwo bakubitwa n'Abazungu. Abandi (ni ukuvuga abategekwagwa) ibyo bikorwa by'agahato byarabavunnye bikabije. Ababiligi bari bafite ibitekerezo bibi baheraho muri uko gukandamiza Abanyarwanda:

 • Basuzuguraga umwirabura ku mpamvu nyinshi zirimo izingizi ebyiri: ngo umwirabura ni igicucu nta bwenge agira n'ikimenyimenyi n'uko adashobora kwibwiriza icyamugirira akamaro ngo agikore; ngo ni umunebwe kabuhariwe ku buryo agomba guhatirwa gukora byaba ngombwa akabikubitirwa.

 • Ababiligi ntibashakaga gutanga amafaranga yabo ngo bateze igihugu imbere. Ibyo byaterwaga n'uko bari bazi ko igihugu cy'u Rwanda ari indagizo ya SDN na ONU, amaherezo bazareka kurutegeka. Ikindi mu buryo bwo gucunga ubukungu n'imari, bazi ko ari ngombwa gushobora bike ugamije inyungu nyinshi. Kubera iyo mpamvu bakoresheje Abanyarwanda nta mafaranga menshi ya Leta mbiligi bakoresheje. Amafaranga hafi yose yakoreshejwe yavaga mu maboko y'abaturage, cyangwa ba nyiri ayo maboko bagakora badahembwa, abatware bagahembwa amafaranga avuye mu misoro.

 • Ibyo bikorwa byagahato, umuturage wese yumvaga imvune yabyo, akumva ububi bw'ako gahato, kabone n'ubwo kabaga kagamije kumufasha kubona ibimutunga nko guhinga imyumbati, ibijumba, n'ibindi.

1.         AKAZI (corvee/forced labour)

Tubanze dusuzume icyo aricyo. Akazi byari Ibikorwa byagahato bidahemberwa, byazanywe n'ubutegetsi bwite bw'Abazungu.

Ingero z'ibyakorwaga: - gukora imihanda; - gutera amashyamba (abasore 300 bagombaga gutera nibura hectare imwe y'inturusu mu bya 1930); - kubaka amazu y'ubutegetsi no gutwara ibikoresho (ibiti, amatafari); - gucukura imiringoti, nb. 24.

Abakoraga akazi ni bande? Ni abagabo basoraga. Mu bya 1930, ababazwaga imirimo ya Leta n'umusoro babitaga "Homme Adulte Valide (H.A.V)": ni ukuvuga abasore n'abagabo bafite ingufu. Hamwe na hamwe Abatwa nta kazi babasabaga gukora, kimwe n'uko batabarurwaga. Hari ikindi cyiciro amategeko y'akazi yasoneraga: ni abo bitaga "les Notables" bikavuga Abanyacyubahiro bashyikiranaga n'abatware n'umwami, abakoreraga Abazungu ari aba Leta ari n'abanyamadini, abarimu, abakuru b'inama, akenshi n'ababaga batuye mu cyo bitaga "centres extra-coutumiers", ni ukuvuga abasirimu barimo n'abanyamahanga b'abirabura.

Abakoreshaga akazi: Ku bw'Abazungu abakoreshaga ku mugaragaro akazi ni umwami, abashefu n'abasushefu. Ariko mu by'ukuri, mu migirire ya buri munsi, akazi kakoreshwaga cyane cyane n'ibirongozi n' abamotsi.

ibibi by'akazi, Akazi kakoreshejwe ku gitugu, nkeke yo guhamagarwa buri gihe kukajyaho no kutagira umunsi n'umwe umuturage yabaga azi ko yakora gahunda ashaka.

Ububi bw'akazi kiyongera ku musoro n'ibindi bikorwa by'agahato nka shiku byatumye Abanyarwanda benshi bahunga ingoma mbiligi bajya cyane cyane Uganda bajya gupagasa; Ni ukuvuga gushaka umusoro, akenda, n’utundi tuntu.

2.           UBURETWA

 Uburetwa ni imirimo abategekwa bakoreraga abategetsi biturutse kuri iryo sano ryonyine ry'ubutegetsi cyangwa abakene bakoreraga abakire, kandi iyo mirimo ntigire ibihembo.

 Imirimo y'uburetwa yari iyihe? Hari abakunze kwitiranya mu nyandiko zabo uburetwa n'ikoro (ryaba iry'umuheto cyangwa iry'ubutaka). Hari n'abagiye bitiranya uburetwa n'ubuhake cyangwa akazi k'igihe cy'Abazungu. Mu byukuri imirimo y'ingenzi yakorerwaga umutegetsi mbere y'Abazungu ni iyi: guhinga, kuba (urugero hari abavaga i Bugoyi bakajya kubaka ibwami), kurarira, gucana ibishyito, gusenya (gushaka inkwi), kuvoma, gukuka no guheka.

 Uburetwa bwadutse ryari? Mu byukuri ntibyoroshye kumenya ku buryo budashidikanywa igihe uburetwa bwadukiye mu Rwanda. Hari abagiye bemeza ko uburetwa ari ubwo ku ngoma ya Rwabugili (Kimanuka Tharcisse, Uburetwa et akazi au Marangara de 1916 à 1959, Memoire de licence, Ruhengeri, 1983).

 Hari n'abandi bemeza ko uburetwa bwazanywe n'Abazungu; bati n'ikimenyimenyi ni iryo jambo uburetwa rikomoka ku giswahile "kuleta", cyangwa ku gifaransa "l'Etat" cyabyaye "uburetwa" ari byo kuvuga "ni ibya Leta".

 Birashoboka kandi ko iryo jambo riva ku kinyarwanda cya kera, nk'uko Inkoranyamagambo (DIMO: dictionnaire monolingue) ya I.R.S.T. (Butare) ibyerekana: handitsemo ko "uburetwa" ari ijambo rishaje ryavugaga "imibyizi umuretwa (cg. Ikiretwa) yakoraga ku mutware w'ubutaka". Iyo nkoranyamagambo itanga n'umugani ngo "umusozi w'uburetwa ukama kare.

3.           SHIKU

Icyo iryo jambo rivuga Shiku ni ahantu bahingaga ku gahato imirimo (ibipimo) yagenwe n'ubutegetsi bwa gikoloni kandi igahingwamo imyaka yemejwe n'ubwo butegetsi ngo izarwanye inzara.

Shiku bivuga n'umurimo ubwawo wo guhinga ku gahato bene iyo mirimo Imyaka yahingwaga ni ibijumba n'imyumbati. Ijambo shiku rikomoka ku nshinga "gushikura", mu byerekeye ubuhinzi bikavuga guhingisha isuka ukurura n'ingufu ahantu h'umushike (Adiaenssens J., Le droit foncier au Rwanda, Butare, 1962, P.61).

Ariko shiku yashoboraga no guhingwa ku gasi (ku mpama), ngombwa bikaba kwegera umuhanda cyangwa aho witegeye. Kwegera umuhanda kwari ukugirango umutegetsi w'umuzungu cyangwa shefu bashime umwete wa sushefu w'aho hantu, banamuhe amanota.

Shiku yari ifite irindi zina: habagaho ubwo bayitaga "akajagari" bigashaka kuvuga urusange rw'imirima yahingwagamo n'abantu benshi, ariko buri muntu akagira igipande/icyate cye. Icyo gipande cyari icye mu gihe uwahahingaga atari yasarura, kuko iyo yamaraga gusarura habaga aha susheferi.

Igihe shiku yatangiriye, Amashiku yatangiye gukoreshwa mu mwaka wa 1926, ageragezwa imyaka ine yose.

Akamaro ka shiku n'ububi bwayo, Abakoloni bari barategetse shiku kubera inyungu bwite z'abaturage: twibuke ko mu mwaka 1924-1925, inzara bise gakwege yaciye ibintu. Abazungu bibwiraga ko shiku izakemura ikibazo cy'inzara ku buryo budasubirwaho.

Ibyo ari byo byose shiku yabaye ikintu cyanzwe cyane n'abaturage. Yatwaraga ingufu nyinshi ku musaruro muke, ndetse rimwe na rimwe wa ntawo.

4.          UMUGOGORO

 Umugogoro ni inka yatangwaga n'umuturage cyangwa umuryango, ikajya gukamirwa umuzungu (ndetse n'abamuherekeje) aho yabaga acumbitse ku nkambi. Umugogoro byavugwa nki gikorwa cyo kujyana inka. Bavugaga: kujya ku mugogoro.

 Inka y'umugogoro yagiraga n'ibindi biyiherekeza bitangwa n'abaturage: inkoko, amagi, ibitoke... Uwategekaga ko batanga umugogoro n'ibiwuherekeza akenshi abinyujije kirongozi nacyo kikabibwira umumotsi ni sushefu.

5.         IKAWA

Aba mbere badukanye ikawa mu Rwanda ni Abapadiri bera. Abo ba misiyoneri bari bakeneye ikawa yo kunywa. Guhera mu mwaka wa 1903 nibwo batangiye kuyihinga muri  misiyoni ya Mibirizi, nyuma ikwira buhoro buhoro mu gihugu.

Ariko ikawa yatangiye kwamamara mu bya 1925, aho ubutegetsi bw'Ababiligi butegetse abaturage kuyihinga. Guhera mu myaka 1933/1934, ni bwo Abanyarwanda batangiye guhinga ikawa ku itegeko n'ubwo hari ababikoraga ku bushake buke kubera inyungu babibonagamo.

Ibindi bikorwa by ‘agahato twavuga nk ‘umusoro w’Abazungu ( Ababiligi) wadutse 1917 kugeza 1927, Umusoro wabazwaga buri musore cyangwa buri mugabo muzima (H.A.V) agatanga amafaranga atatu n'urumiya (3,50 francs). . Ububi bw'umusoro wa gikoloni (1916-1962) Umusoro wagiye wiyongera udakurikijwe ubukungu bw'abawubazwa. Iyo Abanyarwanda batubahirizaga ibyo bikorwa bya gahato twavuze haruguru bahanishwaga ikiboko ibicye byari ibiboko umunani, ihazabu (amande/fine) yagendaga mu mafaranga akenshi. Gufungwa: Gufungwa iminsi, amezi cyangwa imyaka byazanywe n'Abazungu. Kunyagwa: ni ukwamburwa ubutegetsi kw’Abashefu n'Abasushefu ndetse no gucibwa.

Imvano y’inkuru : Igitabo” UBUMWE BW'ABANYARWANDA ~ MBERE Y'ABAZUNGU N'IGIHE CY'UBUKOLONI ~ MU GIHE CYA REPUBULIKA YA MBERE” Cyasohotse 1999.

 

 

Last modified on Thursday, 17 September 2020 09:42

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