1. 1. Kalinda Viateur yari Umunyarwanda , umunyamakuru wakoraga kuri Radio Rwanda mu ishami ry’imikino.
  2. 2. Kalinda Viateur, ni izina rizwi cyane nk’umunyamakuru wogeje umupira kuri Radiyo Rwanda kuva mu 1978 kugeza mu 1994 .

.

  1. 3.Yavutse mu 1953, avukira mu cyahoze ari Komini Rutare, Segiteri Murehe, ubu akaba ari akarere ka Gicumbi, Umurenge wa Ruvune.

 

  1. 4.Amashuri abanza yayize ahantu hatandukanye: Kinyami, Rutare na Muhura.
    1. 5.Amashuri yisumbuye yayize kuri “Seminari Nto ya Mutagatifu Saviyo Dominiko” yo ku Rwesero, Amashuri makuru ayiga muri Seminari Nkuru ya Nyakibanda, aho yamaze imyaka ibiri yiga Filosofi (Philosophy).
    2. 6.Nyuma yaje kujya kwiga imyaka itatu muri Kaminuza Nkuru y’u Rwanda i Butare, aho yakurikiranye ishami ry’indimi kugeza mu mwaka wa 1977.
    3. 7.Mu 1988, yagiye kwiga muri “ Institut Supérieur Catholique Pédagogique appliqué” i Nkumba ahahoze hitwa Ruhengeri. Yahize icyiciro cya kabiri cya Kaminuza mu ndimi.
    4. 8.Arangije yoherejwe mu mahugurwa mu Bubiligi mu bijyanye na Televiziyo kuko ari bwo yari igiye gushingwa bwa mbere mu Rwanda.
    5. 9.yatoranyijwe mu bagomba kwitabira amahugurwa y’amezi 9 yabereye mu Bubiligi yari ajyanye n’ibya Televisiyo yari igiye gutangizwa bwa mbere mu Rwanda.

 

  1. 10.Avuye mu Bubiligi mu 1989, Kalinda yahise aba umunyamakuru w’imikino kuri Televiziyo y’u Rwanda ahava mu mpera z’umwaka wa 1993 agizwe umunyamakuru uhagarariye ORINFOR mu cyahoze ari Perefegitura ya Byumba.

 

  1. 11.Kalinda yakoze kuri Radiyo Rwanda mu ishami rya “Documentation” nyuma aza kuba umunyamakuru w’imikino.

 

  1. 12.Kalinda yashakanye na Uzanyinyana Domithile mu 1979 babyarana abana 4: NKUBITO Kalinda Thiery , Mitali Adolphe, Mukakalinda Aline na Igihozo M. Christella.
  2. 13.Kalinda Viateur yanditse igitabo akita “Rwaranyeganyeze” cyasobanuraga amategeko y’umupira w’amaguru.
    1. 14.Niwe wahimbye amwe mu magambo akoreshwa muri Ruhago mu Rwanda.
    2. 15.Ayo magambo ni aya: Rwanyeganyeze, Kurengura umupira, Urubuga rw’amahina, Ruhago, Umurongo w’abagatanu, Kwamurura Inyoni, Imboni, inguni, Urushundura, Imana y’ibitego, Kunobagiza, Rwari ruhiye ndetse n’ibindi.
    3. 16.Azwi cyane nk’ umunyamakuru wogezaga umupira w’amaguru bikanyura abawumva.
    4. 17.Yakanguriye ibigo binyuranye gukora amakipe y’imikino aho yashinze ikipe y’umupira w’amaguru yitwaga “Imboni” muri Minisiteri y’itangazamakuru (MININFOR)”.
    5. 18.Yagiye mu bihugu byinshi, ku migabane itandukanye aherekeje abakinnyi.
    6. 19.Kalinda Viateur yazize Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi mu w’1994 Yicwa tariki 24 Mata.
    7. 20.Umurambo we wabonetse 1995 ari nabwo yashyinguwe. Bamumenyeye ku ikarita y’umunyamakuru yari agifite.

 

  1. 21.Kalinda ashyinguwe hamwe n’abihayimana mu irimbi rya Kiriziya Gaturika ry’i Kabgayi.

 

 

Imvano Yinkuru n’ifoto : internet

Inzu za mbere zubakishije amatafari zubatswe n’abazungu. Abakozi babakoreye nabo bahise baboneraho kubigana barazubaka ariko bagakomeza kurara mu nzu basanganywe z’ibyatsi izubakishije amatafari bakazirazamo abana.

Mu Kagari ka Karengera, Umurenge wa Musambira ho mu Karere ka Kamonyi, inzu ya mbere yubakishije amatafari yahabaye yari iy’umuzungu w’umubiligi witwaga Demeya . Kuri ubu, iyo nzu ni urusengero rw’itorero Presypiterienne mu Rwanda, Paruwasi ya Musambira. Uwo muzungu yubatse iyo nzu nyuma y’inzara ya ruzagayura (avuga ko yabaye ahagana mu 1930), ubwo yakoreragamo akazi ko gusya imyumbati.

Muri icyo gihe ahandi hari inzu z’amatafari hari kuri misiyoni i Kabgayi ahabanje amatanura y’amatafari ahiye bita “Mpunyu” yazanywe n’abapadiri b’abazungu. Ngo nyuma yaho gato niho abafundi bakoze i Kabgayi bigannye iforomo abazungu bakoresha mu kubumba amatafari ya mpunyu, ariko bo bakora nini, iba ariyo babumbisha “Rukarakara”. Batangiye kubaka inzu z’amatafari ya rukarakara ariko ntibaziraremo kuko bavugaga ko zikonja. Bahitagamo kurara mu nzu z’ibyatsi, iz’amatafari bakazirazamo abana bamaze kuba abasore.

Ifu Demaya yasyaga yayishyiraga abo uwo musaza yita “Abapiya” bishatse kuvuga abanyarwanda bari barajyanywe mu Ntara ya Katanga ho muri Repubulika Iharanira Demokarasi ya Kongo gucukura amabuye y’agaciro no gukorera Kawa. Kuko ngo icyo gihe abanyarwanda bari bataramenya kurya imyumbati cyangwa ubugari kuko bayihinze ku gahato nyuma y’inzara ya Ruzagayura muri shiku (bahingiraga hamwe ari benshi).Abo rero ngo nibo bagarutse bakigisha imiryango yabo kurya imyumbati.

Yitwa Gaston Rwaka Kayitaba,ni umunyamakuru atuye ku Musozi witwa Mt Kigali ufite amateka akomeye kuko hari imirwa igera kuri 7 yatuyeho abami b’ u Rwanda harimo Cyirima Rugwe na Kigeli 4 Rwabugiri, nkunda kubona abantu bankikije batekanye(umuryango wanjye, inshuti ndetse n’ abaturanyi)

 

Dore ikiganiro yagiranye na Igicumbi.com

 

1.Ni hehe watembereye mu Rwanda ?

 

Bitewe n’ ubuzima nabayemo nta hantu na hamwe nyaburanga navuga ko ntazi muri uru RWANDA Rwa Gasabo dore n’ u Rwanda rugari nararugenze ahashoboka.

 

2. Ni uwuhe muntu cyangwa ikintu mu mateka y’u Rwanda ukunda cyangwa uzirikana?

 

Nkunda Rugamba Cyprien kuko ni umuntu wakundaga impinduka kandi utararyaga ruswa kugeza aho yemeye kuhasiga ubuzima adatatiriye.

 

 

3. Ni hehe uheruka gutemberera cyangwa kugera mu Rwanda ?

Yewe nubwo ubuzima bwanjye bwagiye burangwa no gutembera ubu sinzi uko byangendekeye maze imyaka igera kuri itanu ntarenga Umurwa usibye rimwe muri 2019 natembereye kuri Nyirangarama nabwo ntabwo naharaye.

Ahubwo ndasaba Gihangamana kongera kunfungurira imiryango maze inzuzi zikera.

 

4. Ni ayahe mafunguro ya Kinyarwanda ukunda?

 

Amateke n’ imyumbati usibye ko byinshi ubu ntakibyita ibya kinyarwanda ahubwo ni imituburano .

Kuri iyi ngingo igitangaje n’ uko ibiryo by’ umwimerere by’ abanyarwanda wabisanga mu Burayi cyangwa no muri Amerika.

Aha ntumbaze uburyo byahageze icyo nzi n’ uko abera ari abahanga bijyaniye imbuto nyayo batuzanira imituburano kuko bazi ko dushonje cyane bityo ntidukeneye ibyiza ahubwo turangajwe imbere na byinshi kugira ngo bitumare isari.

 

 

5. Ni ikihe kinyobwa cya Kinyarwanda ukunda?

 

Nkunda amata nubwo ntayazi neza kuko navukiye ahantu bayashyiramo isukari usibye ko na none ntazi no gukama ariko nkunda inka kugeza naho amase ampumurira neza cyane kurusha n’ imibavu imwe n’ imwe.

 

6. Ni iki witwaza iyo utembereye cyangwa uri mu rugendo?

 

Nitwaza inkoni kuko ifite ibisobanura byinshi kuri njye mfashe urugero rwa Mose.

 

7. Ni irihe torero ribyina Kinyarwanda ukunda?

 

Inganji mu Nganzo iyoborwa na Maso.

 

8.Ni hehe mu Rwanda watembereye cyangwa wageze ukumva urahakunze?

 

Mu Ruhengeri iyo mbonye bya Birunga numva ndi I Rwanda nkumva nanahasazira.

 

9. Ujya mu ntara z’u Rwanda,ni ikihe kigo gitwara abagenzi ukunda? Kubera iki?

 

VIRUNGA, Yubahiriza igihe kandi igerageza no kubaha abagenzi.

 

10. Ni uwuhe muhanzi,umwanditsi,umunyabugeni w’umunyarwanda ukunda? N’igihangano cye ukunda?

 

 

Rugamba Cyprien” Tuguhaye Impundu”indirimbo

Bernard Birasa”Union Africaine” tableau.

 

11. Uwaguhitishamo ahantu ho gutura mu Rwanda ,wahitamo hehe ? Kubera iki?

 

Ruhengeri hari Climat nziza cyane ! Impamvu ni nyinshi ariko iya mbere n’ ikirere kandi gikubiyemo byinshi.

 

12.Ni irihe serukiramuco ukunda mu Rwanda?

 

Nkunda Kigali Up.

 

13. Ni ikihe gihugu cya Afurika wifuza kuba watemberamo? Kubera iki?

 

Ethiopia, Ni igihugu gifite amateka adasanzwe kuko nicyo cyo nyine kitigeze gikolonizwa kandi gifite abantu beza bafite umuco w’ ubutwari.

 

14. Ni hehe hafite amateka mu Rwanda wifuza kugera?

 

Nta na hamwe kuko umusozi ntuyeho nk’ uko nabivuze ufite amateka akomeye kuko watuweho abami ariko nanjye ndahabyariye ndaharereye mpafite inshuti ndetse n’ abanzi icyo nifuza n’ uko nkomeza kuhaba neza.

 

15.Ni hehe uteganya gutembera muri uyu mwaka wa 2020?

 

Ndifuza kugera mu Gakenke ngiye guhemba mabukwe kuko nawe yaje kumbemba ubwo nibarukaga umwana w’ umukobwa nise Isogi Rwaka Gracia.

 

Murakoze cyane.

 

Murakoze cyane.

 

Inzara ya Ruzagayura yatangiye ahagana mu Kwakira kw’i 1943. Yatewe n’amapfa yamaze imyaka ibiri. Ayo mapfa yatangiye muri Nzeri  1942, yongera kubaho nyuma gato y’itumba ryo mu 1943.

Ruzagayura yatewe kandi n’igabanyuka ry ‘ibiribwa ryaturutse ku ndwara y’ibirayi bita « mildiou/mildew », ndetse no ku ndwara y’ibishyimbo bita « chortophila » no ku ndwara y’ibijumba bita « rhizoctonia/rhizoctonie ». Nk’uko bigaragara.

 izo ndwara zibasiye ibiribwa by’ibanze by’Abanyarwanda b’icyo gihe. Inzara ya Ruzagayura yongerewe ubukana n’intambara ndetse n’uko icyo gihe Abanyarwanda  bagombaga guha umusanzu Leta nkoloni y’Ababiligi yari ihanganye n’ingabo za Adolf Hitler mu ntambara ya kabiri y’isi yose (war effort/ effort de guerre). Uwo musanzu wari ugizwe n’ibiribwa n’amatungo.

Abanyarwanda batangaga inka ,ibishyimbo, amasaka amashaza   byo kugaburira abasirikare b’abanyekongo ndetse n’abakozi bo mu birombe byo muri Congo. Usibye ibiribwa n’amatungo, umusanzu w’Abanyarwanda muri iyo ntambara wari ugizwe n’imirimo y’ agahato irimo guharura imihanda, kubumba amatafari, gutwara imizigo  y’abakoloni, gukora mu birombe bya zahabu  na coltan, guhinga ibireti byakoreshwaga mu gutunganya umuti  wica udukoko .

Inzara ya Ruzagayura yiswe amazina  menshi bitewe n’ubukana yagiye igaragaza mu turere dutandukanye tw’u Rwanda. Mu majyepfo yiswe Ruzagayura. Mu duce dutandukanye tw’uburasirazuba yiswe Rujukundi, Rwanyirarushenyi,Rwakinyebuye   cyangwa se Rwakabetezi.

Mu majyaruguru, mu bice bya za Gisenyi na Ruhengeri   yisweRudakangwimishanana , Rugaragazabadakekwa na Nyirahuku . Hagati mu gihugu ndetse n’amajyaruguru y’iburasirazuba, mu bice bya Byumba , iyo nzara yari izwi ka Matemane. Mu burengerazuba, muri territoire ya Kibuye  , yiswe Gahoro.

Iyo nzara yagize ubukana bwinshi mu majyaruguru, mu burasirazuba no mu majyepfo y’igihugu. Mu bice bya Cyangugu niho honyine hatigeze hahura n’iyo nzara ku mpamvu z’ikirere cyaho. Ikindi, iyo ntara yari yegeranye na Congo Mbiligi ku buryo itari kugira ikibazo cyo kubura ibiribwa. Ahubwo yakiraga abantu bavuye mu zindi ntara nka Astrida   cyangwa se Gisenyi.

Mu gihe cya Ruzagayura, uduce tw’imisozi ihanamye, uduce tw’ubutaka busharira, uduce turangwamo isuri nitwo twababaye cyane kurusha utundi. Muri utwo duce kimwe n’ahandi,abaturage  barazahaye ku buryo benshi bamaraga iminsi 2 cyangwa se 3 batariye. Benshi inzara yarabicaga. Abaryaga, wasangaga barya inguri  (imizi y’insina), imizi y’ibiti,amareberebe , umutsima uvuye mu ifu ya barakatsi (acacia) cyangwa se y’intembe y’insina. Iyo ndyo idasanzwe nta gushidikanya ko nayo yishe abantu benshi muri icyo gihe.

Abafite agatege barasuhukaga bakajya gushaka aho bakura ibiribwa cyangwa se aho bagurana ibikoresho byabo n’ibiribwa. Benshi wasangaga barananutse nk’uko bigaragara ku mafoto y’icyo gihe. Babitaga ingarisi kubera uko babaga barashizemo. Izo « ngarisi » kimwe n’imirambo y’abitabye Imana  biri mu bintu byaranze iyo nzara. Iyo mirambo yasangwaga hafi y’imihanda, mu mirima, mu mashyamba, ku nkengero z’inzuzi n’ahandi henshi.

Umuntu yakwibaza ati ese ni iki abayobozi b’abakoloni bakoze mu kuyirwanya ? Ese ni iki Umwami Mutara III Rudahigwa n’abatware bakoze mu kuyihashya ? Ese ni iki abamisiyoneri bakoze mu kuyirwanya ? Ese iyo nzara yagize izihe ngaruka ku banyarwanda ?

 

INGARUKA ZATEWE N’INZARA YA RUZAGAYURA 1943-1944 MU RWANDA

 

Nyuma y’uko hafashwe ingamba   zinyuranye zo kurwanya inzara ya Ruzagayura, abaturage babishishikarijwemo n’abategetsi b’abakoloni ndetse n’abatware bahinganye ubwira. Ibyo byatumye inzara irangira, nyamara yasigiye Abanyarwanda benshi ingaruka ziremereye.

Guhera mu ntangiriro z’i 1944, Abanyarwanda bahinze ibishyimbo, amashaza, ibirayi, imyumbati n’ibijumba. Kubera uburumbuke bw’imvura yaguye mu buryo buhagije, umusaruro wariyongereye, Ibigega byongera guhunikwamo, abari barasuhutse bagaruka mu ngo zabo. Ubwo abamisiyoneri bahagaritse gutanga amafunguro . Inkambi z’ingarisi zirafungwa, Nuko ahagana muri Nyakanga 1944, abategetsi b’abakoloni bahagarika kohereza amakamyo y’ibiribwa mu Rwanda. Mu mpera z’umwaka w’i 1944, aba aribwo hatangazwa ko inzara yarangiye mu gihugu.

N’ubwo inzara ya Ruzagayura yamaze umwaka umwe, yahitanye abantu benshi cyane. Abamisiyoneri b’abagatolika batangaje muri raporo ngarukamwaka yo hagati y’i 1939 n’i 1945, ko u Rwanda rwatakaje abantu bagera ku 300 000, harimo n’abasuhukiye mu bindi bihugu nka Tanganyika, Uganda na Congo Mbiligi. Muri iyo raporo bavugaga ko abasuhutse bageraga ku 75 000.

Iyo mibare yaturutse muri raporo z’abategetsi b’Ababiligi, nabo bayihawe n’abatware b’Abanyarwanda. Gusa nk’uko nabo babyivugira, ababaruraga bibagirwaga rimwe na rimwe kubara abana, abagore, abarwayi n’abasheshakanguhe bapfuye cyangwa se bahunze iyo nzara. Ibyo bituma rero umuntu yibaza niba iyo nzara itaba yarahitanye abantu barenga umubare w’abatangajwe muri iyo raporo !

Inzara ya Ruzagayura yangije kandi byinshi, itera n’ubujura bukabije mu gihugu. Ubwo bujura bwakwiye mu turere twose tw’u Rwanda, cyane cyane utwari twarayogojwe n’inzara. Bwakorwaga n’ingeri zose. z’Abanyarwanda : Abana, abagabo, abagore, abafundi, abakozi b’abapadiri bibaga ibiribwa mu mirima y’abaturage, mu bubiko bwa misiyoni, mu ngo z’abaturage n’ahandi hantu henshi. Mu turere tumwe na tumwe tw’u Rwanda, nko muri teritwari ya Gisenyi , ubwo bujura bwafashe indi ntera kugera aho abaturage  batatinyaga gutega ku nzira bagenzi babo bavuye kuri za misiyoni bakabagusha mu gico cyabo (ambush, embuscade), maze bakabambura ibiribwa bahawe.

Ibyo byateje umutekano muke mu gihugu, bizana urwikekwe n’umujinya mwinshi mu Banyarwanda. Ahanini, uwo mujinya waturukaga ku bukana bw’inzara no ku buremere bw’umusanzu watangwaga n’Abanyarwanda. Muri uwo musanzu niho habarizwaga imirimo y’agatunabwene. Muri iyo mirimo, Abanyarwanda bakubitwaga ikiboko ubutitsa. Ibyo byatumye bijundika abatware n’abategetsi b’Ababiligi. Abatware batakubitaga abaturage ikiboko barahanwaga. Aha twavuga nk’abatware François Rwabutogo, wo mu Buganza na Simon Nyiringondo wo mu Mirenge, bahanishijwe kunyagwa inka zabo kubera ko batakubise abo bayoboye cyangwa se ngo babakoreshe mu bundi buryo bukarishye.


Abatware nabo bageze aho barakarira cyane Ababiligi kubera ibyo babakoreshaga.Abanyarwanda  barakariye kandi abamisiyoneri kubera ko bananirwaga kubavugira, ahubwo ugasanga bafatanya n’abategetsi b’Ababiligi mu gukarishya imibereho yabo. Uwo mujinya watumye ndetse Abanyarwanda bifuza guhindurirwa igihugu kibakoloniza. Bamwe muri bo batangiye icyo gihe gutekereza kurwanirira ubwigenge n’ubusugire by’igihugu cyabo.

 

Imvano y’inkuru n’ifoto : Internet

 

 

 

Uyu mugani baca ngo: Yaruhiye gatsi wakomotse kuli Gatsi ka Syoli mu Kibali (Byumba). Syoli yari amaze kugwa mu ishyamba rya Nyagahanga mu Buyaga; dore ko yaryidegembyagamo wenyine mu muhigo, babimuhana akigira simbikozwe. Bukeye arigezemo agiye kwituma mu rucucu, yikanga umuturumbuko w'urukwavu, agira ubwoba by'uri wenyine mu ishyamba arashiguka, yishita ku icumu rye riramucurangura.

Ubwo Gatsi yari amaze kuba umusore, ndetse amaze no gushakirwa. Nuko Syoli amaze gupfa, umukambwe we yimura umukazana we n'umwuzukuru kugira ngo abiyegereze, abavana aho bari batuye ku ishyamba abajyana ku Cyuru, ariko Gatsi we atabyishimiye kuko bamukuye ku ishyamba kandi yarahuguwe n'inyama z'umuhigo. Gatsi na nyina barabutura no ku Cyuru. Batarahamara kabiri, Gatsi abwira nyina, ati: "Mawe rero ibi biranyobeye!" Nyina ati: "Ese ibikuyobeye ni ibiki ?" Gatsi ati: "Ibyo kuba aho tutarya inyama tugaterura ukwezi tugasingira ukundi!" Nyina aramubwira, ati: "Dore so yasize inka nyinshi zirimo ibimasa n'amagumba; tujye tubaga akamasa tukarye!" Naho kujya mu ishyamba ndabikubujije, ejo utazava aho umera nka so!" Buracya babaga ikimasa; barotsa barateka bararya.

Ariko Gatsi ntibyamunogera, akomeza kugononwa; ati: "Ubundi twaryaga inyama z'inyamaswa iteka, bigatuma inka za data zororoka, none se ubu ko tuzahutsemo, rubanda na sogokuru ntibazatugaya?" Nyina aramubwira, ati: "So yasize, amatungo menshi; inka n'ihene; noneho tujye tubaga ihene ube ari zo urya" Gatsi ati: "Ninzirya jyenyine ntazisangiye na bashiki banjye bizamarira iki?" Nyina, ati: "Jye na bashiki bawe ntidusanzwe turarikira inyama!" Gatsi apfa kwemera, ariko atanezerewe. Bukeye bamubagira isekurume, arotsa, arateka, arya uko ashaka. Amaze kurya nyina aramubwira, ati: "Mwana wanjye rero, cyo tuza kurarikira guhiga! uzi uko byatugize!" Gatsi ntiyabyitaho bucya ahambira, asanga bagenzi be b'i Buhambe bahoze bahigana. Agezeyo, baraganira ararayo, bukeye bajyana mu ishyamba guhiga. Bica inyamaswa nyinshi, barabaga barotsa, bararya. Mu gitondo Gatsi bamuha umurwi we arawutahana; awushyira nyina na bashiki be. Barateka, barasangira. Gatsi; afatiraho ijambo; araterura, ati: "Ntimureba ko ibintu bisumbana! Ntimureba ko dusangiye bikatubera byiza, ubundi nigunganaga inyama za jyenyine, bashiki banjye bakanuye amaso!" Nyina aramusubiza, ati: "Mwana wanjye, ahubwo nzajya ntanga inshuro ngure inyama z'inyamaswa, ariko woye kujya mu ishyamba, ngo ejo uzave aho ubizira nka so!" Gatsi ntibyamunogera; akomeza gushegera inyama z'umuhigo. Bukeye muka Syoli arazinduka ashaka ikimasa, agiha umuntu ngo akimujyanire i Buhambe; barajyana. Agiha umuhigi wari inshuti y'umugabo we, ati: "Iki kimasa nkiguhereye kugira ngo ujye umpera Gatsi inyama z'inyamaswa, kuko ari zo akunda, namubujije guhiga arananira; ndetse nawe ahubwo uzamumpanire, ejo atazapfa aka se." Umugabo, ati: "Ndabyemeye, ariko sinzi ko Gatsi azabikunda!" Uwo mugabo amuha inyama n'abazikorera, baramuherekeza bamugeza ku Cyuru.

Bagezeyo, amurikira umuhungu amahaho amuzaniye. Gatsi ararya arahashwa, ariko ntibyamunyura. Abwira nyina, ati: "Ibi byo kugaburirwa nk'umwana kandi mfite umuheto wanjye simbishaka." Nyina, ati: "Ese mwana wanjye urashaka iki? Aho ntushaka kuzakenyuka nka so?" Bukeye nyina ajya kwa sebukwe, (sekuru wa Gatsi) aramubwira ati: "Ibyanjye byongeye kunanira, Gatsi namuhannye guhiga, ngo atazamera nka se, none yarananiye, uzamumpanire!" Sebukwe amaze kubyumva, atumira Gatsi aramutonganya.Gatsi ntiyabyumva; bucya asubira i Buhambe guhiga. Nyina yongera gusubira kwa sebukwe. Noneho sebukwe akoranya umuryango wabo awuteza Gatsi. Araterura, ati: "Uyu mukobwa nyina wa Gatsi yaje kundegera umugabo we Syoli, yaramuhannye guhiga mu ishyamba rya wenyine aramunanira; nanjye mbimukojeje antera ubutaka; muzi uko byamugendekeye! None n'umuhungu we yarabyadukanye, tumuhannye aratunanira; nguyu nimumumbarize." Ubwo Gatsi yari amaze kubyara; afite umugore n'abana. Nuko bene wabo baramutonganya, bamuziza ko yanga kumvira abakuru: nyina na sekuru. Ariko ibyo bamuhannye byose Gatsi ntiyabyitaho; noneho arara yigira inama yo kubacika; bukeye aboneza iy'i Bwanacyambwe, abaririza aho abahigi baba. Babamurangira i Kigali cya Mwendo.

Gatsi ajyayo yibanisha n'abaho arubaka, yari yimukanye n'umugore n'abana be! Amaze iminsi i Mwendo babyutsa umuhigo; bageze mu ishyamba bavumbura imbogo; ihubutse ihubirana na Gatsi iramwesa iramwica. Inkuru igera iwabo ku Cyuru, sekuru n'abe barahurura, bahambana Gatsi umukoroza mwinshi (umuruho w'amagorwa n'ishavu n'agahinda). Bimaze kugenda bityo umugani wamamara mu Rwanda, hagira uruhira umuntu bikamupfubira bitewe n'uko aruhira ikinani, bati: "Yaruhiye Gatsi!" Iyo ni yo nkomoko yo kuruhira gatsi, ari byo kuruhira ikinani. Kuruhira gatsi = Kuruhira ikinani; Kugokera ubusa.

IMVANO : Internet

 

UMWANDITSI : UDAHEMUKA Jean de Dieu

Quadripoint! Si henshi ku isi usanga ahantu afite imiterere iteye gutya, kuba hahurira ibihugu birenze bibiri icyarimwe. Kazungula  ni ahantu ho nyine ku isi ibihugu bihurira mu buryo kamere.Ni ahantu  hafite amateka menshi kubera ukuntu hashimishije kuhagera no kuhamenya.

Kazungula hazwi kuba hahurira ibihugu bine aribyo Zimbabwe, Zambia, Botswana na Namibia, ibyo bihugu byose bigahurira ku ruzi rwa Zambezi.

Umugezi wa Chobe ugabanya igihugu cya Namibia na Botwana maze ugahita wiroha mu ruzi rwa Zambezi.

Ahantu haba ubukerarugendo cyane,abantu baturutse impande z’isi baza kureba aho hantu hateye gutyo. Kugenda mu bwato mu ruzi rwa Zambezi, gusura ibintu ndangamuco n’imibereho yabatuye muri ibyo bihugu bifasha mu iterambere ryako gace.

Ibikorwa by’ubuhinzi, ubworozi n’uburobyi bifasha abaturage bahatuye mu mirimo yabo ya buri munsi. Ubucuruzi hagati y’ibihugu bifasha abaturage bahatuye cyane.

Ingendo ziroroshye kugenderana hagati y’ibyo bihugu, hariho ibiraro na Ferry, ubwato bifasha abashaka kwambuka bava mu gihugu bajya mu kindi.

Ni hafi y’umurage w’isi wa Victoria Falls (Livingstone) uri hagati ya Zimbabwe na Zambia. Kazungula ni izina rizwi mu kugenderera ako gace kihariye ku isi kaboneka muri Afurika.

Ifoto:Internet

Mu mwaka wa 1900 nibwo abapadiri bera bageze mu Rwanda bazanye inkuru nziza ya Yezu kristu, abo bapadiri bashinzwe na Karidinali Lavigerie. Kugera mu Rwanda basanze harageze abandi bazungu (Abakoroni) mbere yabo,bituma biborohera kwinjira mu muryango nyarwanda.

Nyuma y’imyaka 17, mu mwaka wa 1917, ntibwo habonetse abapadiri ba kabukire b’abanyarwanda aribo Gafuku Balthazar na Reberaho Donat, bakaba baraherewe ubupadiri I Kabgayi tariki ya 7 Ukwakira 1917.

Uru rutonde rw’ababaye abapadiri ba mbere b’abanyarwanda, batarimo ababarizwa mu miryango y’abihayimana.

Mu mwaka wa 1917:

1.Balthazar GAFUKU
2.Donat REBERAHO

Mu mwaka wa 1919
3. Joseph BUGONDO

Mu mwaka wa 1920:
4. Isidore SEMIGABO
5. Jovith MATABARO

Mu mwaka wa 1917:

Mu mwaka wa 1924:
6. Gallican BUSHISHI

Mu mwaka wa 1925:
7. Albert NDAGIJIMANA

Mu mwaka wa 1927:
8. Callixte BALORUBWENGE
9. Fidèle NGAMIJE

Mu mwaka wa 1929:
10. Aloys BIGIRUMWAMI
11. Ananie KANYAMUGENGE

Mu mwaka wa 1930:
12. Claver MUNYANDEKWE
13. Eloi MINYAGO
14. Philippe NTABWOBA
15. Thomas BAZARUSANGA

Mu mwaka wa 1931:
16. Alpfonse NYAGAHENE
1933
17. Christophe NGENDAHAKUNZWE
18. Jean KAJYIBWAMI
19. Canisius SEBAHIZI

Mu mwaka wa 1934:
20. Noël LIRAKABIJE
21. Antoine SHYIRUBURYO
22. Bernard NZAJYIBWAMI
23. J. B. MUTWEWINGABO

Mu mwaka wa 1935:
24. Charles NTAMBUKO
25. Louis NTAMAZEZE
26. Joachim NDIKUMANA
27. Michel NTAMAKERO
28. Thaddée NGIRUMPATSE

Mu mwaka wa 1936:
29. Damien NYIRINKINDI
30. Michel SEYOBOKA
31. Michel BISENGIMANA

Mu mwaka wa 1937:
32. Aimable KAZUBWENGE
33. E. BIGUMIRABAGABO

Mu mwaka wa 1938:
34. Jean BIZIMANA
35. Simon RUGAYAMPUNZI

Mu mwaka wa 1939:
36. Alphonse RWAKAZINA
37. Bernard RWARAHOZE
38. Mathieu NTAHORUBURIYE
39. Augustin NKERABIGWI
40. Vianney RUSINGIZANDEKWE
41. Laurent SIKUBWABO
42. Michel RWABIGWI
43. Sother NTAHONTUYE
44. Thaddée BICURISHA

Mu mwaka wa 1940:
45. Alfred SEBAKIGA
46. Antoine RUGOMOKA
47. Bernard MANYURANE
48. Joseph SIBOMANA
49. Viateur KABARIRA

Mu mwaka wa 1941:
50. Alexis KAGAME
51. Eustache BYUSA
52. Herman MWAMBARI
53. Jean NTIRIVAMUNDA
54. Joseph NTABARESHYA
55. Marcel NZITABAKUZE
56. Paul SEKABUGA

Mu mwaka wa 1942:
57. Benoît GAKUBA
58. Gabriel NGOMIRARONKA
59. Pierre NTAKARAKORWA
60. Raphaël SEKAMONYO

Mu mwaka wa 1943:
61. Avit NDARIGENDANA
62. Denys MUTABAZI
63. Emmanuel MULERA
64. Gaspard NTIRIVAMUNDA
65. Laurent NKONGOLI
66. Melchior NABANA
67. Noël KILOMBA
68. Prosper SAYINZOGA

Mu mwaka wa 1944:
69. Alexis RUTERANDONGOZI
70. Evariste NZIRORERA
71. Grégoire KAMUGISHA
72. Laurent NZABAKURANA
73. Simon KAYUMBA
74. Stanislas BUSHAYIJA

Mu mwaka wa 1945:
75. Déogratias MBANDIWIMFURA
76. Claver NYIRINGONDO
77. Cyrille KANGABO
78. Léon NZAMWITA
79. Mathias GAHINDA

Mu mwaka wa 1947:
80. Canisius KABAGAMBA
81. Godefroi SUMBILI
82. Juvénal RWAGASANA
83. Vincent SEBAGABO
84. Wenceslas KALIBUSHI
85. Chysologue KAYIHURA
86. Innocent GASABWOYA
87. J.B. KABENGERA
88. Léonard RUBUMBIRA
89. Louis GASORE
90. Phocas NIKWIGIZE

Mu mwaka wa 1949:
91. Janvier MULENZI
92. Apollinaire RWAGEMA
93. Boniface MUSONI
94. Chrysostome KANUSU

Mu mwaka wa 1950:
95. Gérard MWEREKANDE
96. Christophe MUNYAMPANZI
97. Ferdinand MARARA
98. Narcisse SEBASARE
99. Théodose NKIZAMACUMU

Mu mwaka wa 1951:
100. Claver RWAHUNDE

 Amatorero ya Kinyarwanda abyina imbyino gakondo ari mu nzego zagize ibibazo by’imikorere muri iki gihe.  Icyorezo cya Koronavirus (COVID-19) cyagize ingaruka  mu bikorwa byose by’ubuzima bwa bantu. Amatorero ya Kinyarwanda nayo ari mubagizweho ingaruka mu mibereho yayo ya buri munsi,haba mu mikorere, ubuzima bw’abayagize, gususurutsa abantu n’ibindi.

Amatorero afasha mu rwego rwogusigasira no guteza imbere imbyino n’umuco nyarwanda muri rusange, guhanga imirimo mu rubyiruko rubikora, gususurutsa abantu, gusakaza ubumenyi, guhanga,  n’ibindi ni uruganda rufatiye runini igihugu mu iterambere rirambye.

Nyuma y’iki cyorezo, amatorero akwiriye gutekereza uburyo akwiriye kubaho , uburyo buramye, uburyo butandukanye n’ubwari busanzwe, gufata ingamba mu iterambere rirambye.

Dore uburyo amatorero akwiriye kogera kubaho mu buryo burambye

1.  Ubufatanye  hagati y’amatorero

Ni byiza kugira umuco wo gufatanya mu bikorwa, guhana inama ndetse no gutegura ibintu bitandukanye. Kwirinda kuba nyamwigendaho, bizafasha gusangira ubumenyi ndetse n’amakuru. Haba n’ibikorwa mugiye gukora byumvikana vuba, bigashyigikirwa cyane.

Urugero:  Gutegura igitaramo muri amatorero abiri cyangwa atatu bifasha kubona abantu bakitabira kandi abakunzi banyu bakabona ko mufite umugambi wo guteza imbere ibyo mukora.

Ntimba abahanzi basanzwe bahurira mu bitaramo. Kuki amatorero atagira umuco wo gukora ibitaramo hamwe? Gukorera hamwei bizafasha no kubaka urwego rw’amatorero haveho ibintu byo kujarajara, guhinduranya  amatorero.

2. Gukoresha ikoranabuhanga

Amatorero ya Kinyarwanda akwiriye kugira umuco wo gukoresha ikoranabuhanga haba ari ukugira imbuga nkoranyambaga zafasha kumenyekanisha ibikorwa byayo. Bituma akomeza kumenyakana mu Rwanda no hanze y’igihugu kandi bifasha mu kwitabira amarushanwa mpuzamahanga.

3.  Guhanga udushya

Amatorero akwiriye gutekereza ibintu bidasanzwe haba mu mikorere, mu mishakire amafaranga, mugukora imishinga ibyara inyungu, ifasha abantu na sosiyete muri rusange. Guhanga udushya mu bikorwa byabo haba imbyino, imikino, ibitaramo bifite intego runaka, bitewe n’igihe cyangwa umunsi, ukwezi cyangwa n’ibindi bikorwa bizwi mu Rwanda no mu karere.

Urugero: Gutegura gitaramo cyo kwizihiza umunsi u Rwanda rwinjiriye mu muryango wa Afurika y’uburasirazuba. Hakagaragara imico yo mu bihugu biri muri aka karere turimo n’ibindi.

4.  Gutegura ibirori

Guhindura uburyo bwo gutegura ibitaramo, bwo gushakamo amafaranga. Singombwa gutegura igitaramo gihenze cyangwa gutegereza ubukwe gusa. Shaka uburyo habaho igitaramo mu gihembwe ,  kabiri cyangwa gatatu mu mwaka, mu miyi itandukanye y’u Rwanda cyangwa hanze yarwo ndetse no kuri interineti byaragaragaye ko bishoboka.

Urugero: Gutekereza gukorera ibitaramo mu bigo by’Urubyiruko, mu nzu ndangamuco, amashuri Makuru n’ahandi wasabA ubufatanye nabo ndetse n’abandi baba bahakorera mugategura igitaramo kimwe gifite insanganyamatsiko.

 Ni byiza kwibuka gukoresha ikoranabuhanga mu gutegura igitaramo no kwishyurahakoreshejwe ikoranabuhanga.

5.  Gufatanya na Leta n’Abikorera

Gutegura imishinga y’ubufatanye na Leta, ibigo bya Leta, abikorera mu nzego zitadukanye mu rwego rwo gufashanya hagati yanyu no kubamamariza ibintu cyangwa ibikorwa byabo. Amatorero akwiriye guhindura isura, kugaragaza umumaro wayo mu muryango nyarwanda, kwerekana ko hari icyo amaze.

Abikorera bakwiriye kwakirana na Yombi abanyamatorero bafite ibitekerezo byo gukorana; haba ari abafite Amahoteli, Bar & Restaurant, ubusitani, ahantu nyaburanga hakorerwa ubukerarugendo,  inganda, ibigo by’itangazamakuru, insengero n’abandi.

Urugero: Kumvikana na karere mu bikorwa byo gutaramira mu karere mu gasusurutsa abaturage, kuzamura imyidagaduro n’ibikorwa by’ubukerarugendo,  mukabakangurira gahunda za Leta n’ibindi.

Ibikorwa byagahato byatewe n'impamvu y'ingenzi ikurikira.

 Abakoloni bari bagamije mbere ya byose inyungu zabo zo kuvoma ibintu binyuranye bakoresheje Abanyarwanda. Bamwe bakagomba kubafasha mu butegetsi, bakageza ku baturage amabwiriza y'Abazungu kandi bakareba niba yubahirizwa. Abatabikoze bagahanwa; ndetse n'abatware habagaho ubwo bakubitwa n'Abazungu. Abandi (ni ukuvuga abategekwagwa) ibyo bikorwa by'agahato byarabavunnye bikabije. Ababiligi bari bafite ibitekerezo bibi baheraho muri uko gukandamiza Abanyarwanda:

 • Basuzuguraga umwirabura ku mpamvu nyinshi zirimo izingizi ebyiri: ngo umwirabura ni igicucu nta bwenge agira n'ikimenyimenyi n'uko adashobora kwibwiriza icyamugirira akamaro ngo agikore; ngo ni umunebwe kabuhariwe ku buryo agomba guhatirwa gukora byaba ngombwa akabikubitirwa.

 • Ababiligi ntibashakaga gutanga amafaranga yabo ngo bateze igihugu imbere. Ibyo byaterwaga n'uko bari bazi ko igihugu cy'u Rwanda ari indagizo ya SDN na ONU, amaherezo bazareka kurutegeka. Ikindi mu buryo bwo gucunga ubukungu n'imari, bazi ko ari ngombwa gushobora bike ugamije inyungu nyinshi. Kubera iyo mpamvu bakoresheje Abanyarwanda nta mafaranga menshi ya Leta mbiligi bakoresheje. Amafaranga hafi yose yakoreshejwe yavaga mu maboko y'abaturage, cyangwa ba nyiri ayo maboko bagakora badahembwa, abatware bagahembwa amafaranga avuye mu misoro.

 • Ibyo bikorwa byagahato, umuturage wese yumvaga imvune yabyo, akumva ububi bw'ako gahato, kabone n'ubwo kabaga kagamije kumufasha kubona ibimutunga nko guhinga imyumbati, ibijumba, n'ibindi.

1.         AKAZI (corvee/forced labour)

Tubanze dusuzume icyo aricyo. Akazi byari Ibikorwa byagahato bidahemberwa, byazanywe n'ubutegetsi bwite bw'Abazungu.

Ingero z'ibyakorwaga: - gukora imihanda; - gutera amashyamba (abasore 300 bagombaga gutera nibura hectare imwe y'inturusu mu bya 1930); - kubaka amazu y'ubutegetsi no gutwara ibikoresho (ibiti, amatafari); - gucukura imiringoti, nb. 24.

Abakoraga akazi ni bande? Ni abagabo basoraga. Mu bya 1930, ababazwaga imirimo ya Leta n'umusoro babitaga "Homme Adulte Valide (H.A.V)": ni ukuvuga abasore n'abagabo bafite ingufu. Hamwe na hamwe Abatwa nta kazi babasabaga gukora, kimwe n'uko batabarurwaga. Hari ikindi cyiciro amategeko y'akazi yasoneraga: ni abo bitaga "les Notables" bikavuga Abanyacyubahiro bashyikiranaga n'abatware n'umwami, abakoreraga Abazungu ari aba Leta ari n'abanyamadini, abarimu, abakuru b'inama, akenshi n'ababaga batuye mu cyo bitaga "centres extra-coutumiers", ni ukuvuga abasirimu barimo n'abanyamahanga b'abirabura.

Abakoreshaga akazi: Ku bw'Abazungu abakoreshaga ku mugaragaro akazi ni umwami, abashefu n'abasushefu. Ariko mu by'ukuri, mu migirire ya buri munsi, akazi kakoreshwaga cyane cyane n'ibirongozi n' abamotsi.

ibibi by'akazi, Akazi kakoreshejwe ku gitugu, nkeke yo guhamagarwa buri gihe kukajyaho no kutagira umunsi n'umwe umuturage yabaga azi ko yakora gahunda ashaka.

Ububi bw'akazi kiyongera ku musoro n'ibindi bikorwa by'agahato nka shiku byatumye Abanyarwanda benshi bahunga ingoma mbiligi bajya cyane cyane Uganda bajya gupagasa; Ni ukuvuga gushaka umusoro, akenda, n’utundi tuntu.

2.           UBURETWA

 Uburetwa ni imirimo abategekwa bakoreraga abategetsi biturutse kuri iryo sano ryonyine ry'ubutegetsi cyangwa abakene bakoreraga abakire, kandi iyo mirimo ntigire ibihembo.

 Imirimo y'uburetwa yari iyihe? Hari abakunze kwitiranya mu nyandiko zabo uburetwa n'ikoro (ryaba iry'umuheto cyangwa iry'ubutaka). Hari n'abagiye bitiranya uburetwa n'ubuhake cyangwa akazi k'igihe cy'Abazungu. Mu byukuri imirimo y'ingenzi yakorerwaga umutegetsi mbere y'Abazungu ni iyi: guhinga, kuba (urugero hari abavaga i Bugoyi bakajya kubaka ibwami), kurarira, gucana ibishyito, gusenya (gushaka inkwi), kuvoma, gukuka no guheka.

 Uburetwa bwadutse ryari? Mu byukuri ntibyoroshye kumenya ku buryo budashidikanywa igihe uburetwa bwadukiye mu Rwanda. Hari abagiye bemeza ko uburetwa ari ubwo ku ngoma ya Rwabugili (Kimanuka Tharcisse, Uburetwa et akazi au Marangara de 1916 à 1959, Memoire de licence, Ruhengeri, 1983).

 Hari n'abandi bemeza ko uburetwa bwazanywe n'Abazungu; bati n'ikimenyimenyi ni iryo jambo uburetwa rikomoka ku giswahile "kuleta", cyangwa ku gifaransa "l'Etat" cyabyaye "uburetwa" ari byo kuvuga "ni ibya Leta".

 Birashoboka kandi ko iryo jambo riva ku kinyarwanda cya kera, nk'uko Inkoranyamagambo (DIMO: dictionnaire monolingue) ya I.R.S.T. (Butare) ibyerekana: handitsemo ko "uburetwa" ari ijambo rishaje ryavugaga "imibyizi umuretwa (cg. Ikiretwa) yakoraga ku mutware w'ubutaka". Iyo nkoranyamagambo itanga n'umugani ngo "umusozi w'uburetwa ukama kare.

3.           SHIKU

Icyo iryo jambo rivuga Shiku ni ahantu bahingaga ku gahato imirimo (ibipimo) yagenwe n'ubutegetsi bwa gikoloni kandi igahingwamo imyaka yemejwe n'ubwo butegetsi ngo izarwanye inzara.

Shiku bivuga n'umurimo ubwawo wo guhinga ku gahato bene iyo mirimo Imyaka yahingwaga ni ibijumba n'imyumbati. Ijambo shiku rikomoka ku nshinga "gushikura", mu byerekeye ubuhinzi bikavuga guhingisha isuka ukurura n'ingufu ahantu h'umushike (Adiaenssens J., Le droit foncier au Rwanda, Butare, 1962, P.61).

Ariko shiku yashoboraga no guhingwa ku gasi (ku mpama), ngombwa bikaba kwegera umuhanda cyangwa aho witegeye. Kwegera umuhanda kwari ukugirango umutegetsi w'umuzungu cyangwa shefu bashime umwete wa sushefu w'aho hantu, banamuhe amanota.

Shiku yari ifite irindi zina: habagaho ubwo bayitaga "akajagari" bigashaka kuvuga urusange rw'imirima yahingwagamo n'abantu benshi, ariko buri muntu akagira igipande/icyate cye. Icyo gipande cyari icye mu gihe uwahahingaga atari yasarura, kuko iyo yamaraga gusarura habaga aha susheferi.

Igihe shiku yatangiriye, Amashiku yatangiye gukoreshwa mu mwaka wa 1926, ageragezwa imyaka ine yose.

Akamaro ka shiku n'ububi bwayo, Abakoloni bari barategetse shiku kubera inyungu bwite z'abaturage: twibuke ko mu mwaka 1924-1925, inzara bise gakwege yaciye ibintu. Abazungu bibwiraga ko shiku izakemura ikibazo cy'inzara ku buryo budasubirwaho.

Ibyo ari byo byose shiku yabaye ikintu cyanzwe cyane n'abaturage. Yatwaraga ingufu nyinshi ku musaruro muke, ndetse rimwe na rimwe wa ntawo.

4.          UMUGOGORO

 Umugogoro ni inka yatangwaga n'umuturage cyangwa umuryango, ikajya gukamirwa umuzungu (ndetse n'abamuherekeje) aho yabaga acumbitse ku nkambi. Umugogoro byavugwa nki gikorwa cyo kujyana inka. Bavugaga: kujya ku mugogoro.

 Inka y'umugogoro yagiraga n'ibindi biyiherekeza bitangwa n'abaturage: inkoko, amagi, ibitoke... Uwategekaga ko batanga umugogoro n'ibiwuherekeza akenshi abinyujije kirongozi nacyo kikabibwira umumotsi ni sushefu.

5.         IKAWA

Aba mbere badukanye ikawa mu Rwanda ni Abapadiri bera. Abo ba misiyoneri bari bakeneye ikawa yo kunywa. Guhera mu mwaka wa 1903 nibwo batangiye kuyihinga muri  misiyoni ya Mibirizi, nyuma ikwira buhoro buhoro mu gihugu.

Ariko ikawa yatangiye kwamamara mu bya 1925, aho ubutegetsi bw'Ababiligi butegetse abaturage kuyihinga. Guhera mu myaka 1933/1934, ni bwo Abanyarwanda batangiye guhinga ikawa ku itegeko n'ubwo hari ababikoraga ku bushake buke kubera inyungu babibonagamo.

Ibindi bikorwa by ‘agahato twavuga nk ‘umusoro w’Abazungu ( Ababiligi) wadutse 1917 kugeza 1927, Umusoro wabazwaga buri musore cyangwa buri mugabo muzima (H.A.V) agatanga amafaranga atatu n'urumiya (3,50 francs). . Ububi bw'umusoro wa gikoloni (1916-1962) Umusoro wagiye wiyongera udakurikijwe ubukungu bw'abawubazwa. Iyo Abanyarwanda batubahirizaga ibyo bikorwa bya gahato twavuze haruguru bahanishwaga ikiboko ibicye byari ibiboko umunani, ihazabu (amande/fine) yagendaga mu mafaranga akenshi. Gufungwa: Gufungwa iminsi, amezi cyangwa imyaka byazanywe n'Abazungu. Kunyagwa: ni ukwamburwa ubutegetsi kw’Abashefu n'Abasushefu ndetse no gucibwa.

Imvano y’inkuru : Igitabo” UBUMWE BW'ABANYARWANDA ~ MBERE Y'ABAZUNGU N'IGIHE CY'UBUKOLONI ~ MU GIHE CYA REPUBULIKA YA MBERE” Cyasohotse 1999.

 

 

Yitwa TWAGIRAYEZU Yves, Ni Umunyarwanda w’ umunyamateka. Muri iki gihe akorera mu Kigo cy’ Igihugu Gishinzwe Ishyinguranyandiko na Serivisi z’Inkoranyabitabo (RALSA) kibarizwa muri Ministeri y’ Urubyiruko n’ Umuco, mu gashami kacyo k’Ishyinguranyandiko y’ Igihugu (National Archives).

Atuye mu Ntara y’ Amajyepfo mu Karere ka Muhanga. Mu buzima busanzwe akunda kubaho ubuzima butuje, butamubangamiye kandi butabangamiye abandi, baba abo babana, abo bakorana ndetse n’abandi bahurira mu bikorwa bya buri munsi, kandi agakunda ubufatanye n’abandi.

Akunda kandi gukurikira amakuru areba u Rwanda muri rusange.

 

Dore ikiganiro yagiranye na Igicumbi.com

1.Ni hehe watembereye mu Rwanda ?

Mu kigero cy’imyaka ngezemo, navuga ko maze gutembera henshi mu Rwanda mu bihe bitandukanye, ariko aho navuga mperuka mu bihe bya vuba ni i Rubavu ku Kivu n’amashyuza y’aho no ku kiyaga cya Muhazi.

2.Ni uwuhe muntu cyangwa ikintu mu mateka y’u Rwanda ukunda cyangwa uzirikana?

Biragoye k’umunyamateka nkanjye kuvuga ko nkunda umuntu uyu n’uyu cyangwa iki n’iki mu mateka y’u Rwanda kuko kuri jye, umuntu wese uvugwa mu mateka (historical person) cyangwa ufite ibikorwa byasigaye mu mateka aba afite agaciro gakomeye kuri jye. Ariko mu gusubiza ikibazo uko kibajijwe, reka mvuge ko umuntu nkunda mu mateka y’u Rwanda ni MUTARA III RUDAHIGWA (Umwami) na Padiri Alexis KAGAME. Impamvu nkunda Umwami Mutara III Rudahigwa ni ukubera ibikorwa n’ibyemezo bye mu gihe yari aganje ku ngoma. Hanyuma kandi Padiri Alexis KAGAME mukundira ko yashyize amateka mu nyandiko, ibitabo bye ni isooko y’amakuru menshi ku mateka y’u Rwanda. Ikintu nzirikana mu mateka, ni ibihe byo kubohora igihugu ubwo Jenoside yakorerwaga Abatutsi 1994 mu Rwanda.

3.Ni hehe uheruka gutemberera cyangwa kugera mu Rwanda?

Mu karere ka Nyagatare ahitwa i Mimuli hari Urugo rw’ umuhigo rw’Umwami Mutara III Rudahigwa narahasuye haranshimisha.

4. Ni ayahe mafunguro ya Kinyarwanda ukunda?

Nkunda kurya igitoki gitekanye n’ibishyimbo kirimo imboga cyane cyane dodo, imyumbati igeretse ku bishyimbo nayo ni ifunguro nkunda.

5. Ni ikihe kinyobwa cya Kinyarwanda ukunda?

Muri iki gihe sinkinywa inzoga, ariko mbere urwagwa rwiza rwa bitoki nasomagaho.

6. Ni iki witwaza iyo utembereye cyangwa uri mu rugendo?

Icya mbere ni ibindanga (ibyangombwa), birumvikana n’amafaranga yo kwirengera aho ngiye kuko usanga gutwara impamba bigoye, ubundi kandi nkagira agakapu gato nshyiramo nk’icyo kwifubika, ingofero, ecouteurs n’utundi dukoresho umuntu akenera iyo atari mu rugo iwe.

7. Ni irihe torero ribyina Kinyarwanda ukunda?

Buriya nkunda itorero Urugangazi ryabaga muri Musée i Huye ariko simperutse kubona aho riseruka.

8. Ni hehe mu Rwanda watembereye cyangwa wageze ukumva urahakunze?

I Karongi ahagana ku Kiyaga cya Kivu ni heza ndahakunda kubera imiterere yaho usanga hari amazi y’ikiyaga, ibirwa bito byo mu mazi n’uburyo ikiyaga kigenda kinjiranamo n’imisozi.

9. Ujya mu ntara z’u Rwanda,ni ikihe kigo gitwara abagenzi ukunda?Kubera iki?

Iyo ngana mu Ntara y’Amajyepfo, nkoresha cyane Volcano Express cyangwa Horizon Express kubera ko ni ibigo byombi bitanga serivisi nziza mu gutwara abagenzi.

10. Ni uwuhe muhanzi, umwanditsi, umunyabugeni w’umunyarwanda ukunda? N’igihangano cye ukunda?

Umuhanzi Rugamba Spiriyani (n’Amasimbi n’Amakombe) mu ndirimbo ze zose.

11. Uwaguhitishamo ahantu ho gutura mu Rwanda ,wahitamo hehe ? Kubera iki?

Gutura ni mu Ntara y’Amajyepfo by’umwihariko mu karere ka Muhanga kuko hagendeka, ni hafi ya Kigali kandi no mu byo umuntu akenera hafi ya byose biboneka muri Muhanga mu buryo bworoshye.

12. Ni irihe serukiramuco ukunda mu Rwanda?

Ni FESPAD, Iserukiramuco ry’ imbyino nyafurika rihuza imico itandukanye bigashimisha.

13. Ni ikihe gihugu cya Afurika wifuza kuba watemberamo? Kubera iki?

Numva natembera muri Kenya kubera ko nibwira ko bakomeye ku mutungo kamere no ku muco wabo.

14. Ni hehe hafite amateka cyangwa nyaburanga mu Rwanda wifuza kugera?

Ni muri Pariki ya Nyungwe.

15. Ni hehe uteganya gutembera muri uyu mwaka wa 2020?

Uyu mwaka ntaho nteganya gutemberera kubera ibibazo by’ihungabana ry’ubukungu muri rusange ariko no kuri jye by’umwihariko.

Murakoze.

Murakoze.

Page 1 of 34

Igiseke

culture-in-rwanda

Kwamamaza

Umurage Wacu 3lOGO UMURAGECqAJqoFW8AAF6RY.jpg large

Facebook

Inkuru zose

© 2016  Umurage Wacu  Group 

Tel:+250 783541018 /728541018

Email:umuragewacugroup@gmail.com

Address:Kigali-Rwanda

Design by FRI SOFT Ltd